Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), describes a series of painful conditions that are characterized by a pain.
Continuous regional (spontaneous and/or evoked) that is apparently disproportionate in time or degree to the current course of any known trauma or other injury. It usually starts in a limb, manifests as extreme pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and changes in the skin and bones. It may initially affect a limb and then spread throughout the body; 35% of affected people report symptoms throughout the body. There are two subtypes. It is possible to have both types.
Type I – CRPS without evidence of nerve damage in the affected limb. Secondary to injury/trauma. It represents about 90% of CRPS cases.
Type II – CRPS with evidence of nerve damage in the affected limb.
The clinical features of CRPS have been found to be a result of inflammation derived from the release of certain pro-inflammatory chemical signals by nerves, sensitized nerve receptors that send pain signals to the brain, dysfunction of the ability of local blood vessels to contract and dilate. proper form and maladaptive neuroplasticity.
The signs and symptoms of CRPS usually manifest near the site of injury. The most common symptoms are extreme pain, including burning, stabbing, grinding and throbbing. Pain is disproportionate to the severity of the initial injury. Moving or touching the limb is often intolerable. With a diagnosis of CRPS type I or II, patients may develop burning pain and allodynia (pain to non-painful stimuli). Both syndromes are also characterized by autonomic dysfunction, which is manifested by localized changes in temperature, cyanosis and/or edema.
The patient may also have localized swelling; extreme sensitivity to non-painful stimuli such as wind, water, noise and vibrations; extreme sensitivity to touch (from oneself, other people and even their clothes or bedding and blankets); abnormally increased sweating (or absent sweating); changes in skin temperature (alternating between sweaty and cold); changes in skin color (from white and mottled to bright red or reddish-violet); changes in skin texture (waxy, shiny, thin, firm skin); softening and narrowing of bones; joint tenderness or stiffness; changes in nails and hair (delayed or increased growth, nails/hair that breaks easily); muscle spasms; muscle loss (atrophy); tremors; dystonia; allodynia; hyperalgesia; and impaired/restricted ability and painful movement of the affected body part. Falling attacks (falls), near-fainting and fainting are rarely reported, as are visual problems.
Symptoms of CRPS vary in severity and duration. A version of McGill’s Pain Index, a scale to assess pain, ranks CRPS at the top, above childbirth, amputation and cancer. As CRPS is a systemic problem, any organ can potentially be affected. Symptoms can change over time and can vary from person to person. Symptoms can even change several times in a single day.
Previously, CRPS was considered to have three stages, however, more recent studies suggest that people affected by CRPS do not progress through the sequential stages and the stage system is no longer widely used. Instead, mounting evidence points to distinct CRPS subtypes.
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